Medical News Today: Can service dogs help with anxiety?

People with anxiety-related issues can gain tremendous benefit from having a specially trained service dog.

Service dogs are companion animals that help people who have physical or mental health conditions.

A service dog for anxiety can provide a sense of calm, anticipate anxiety attacks, and even fetch medication for their owner.

In this article, we look at the benefits of service dogs for people with anxiety. We discuss how to get an anxiety service dog, which breeds make the most successful anxiety service dogs, and how much they cost.

What are service dogs?

Service dog for anxiety
Service dogs help people with physical or mental conditions.

Service dogs offer practical and emotional support to people with a physical or mental health difficulty.

The most well-known service dogs are guide dogs, which assist people who have visual impairments.

However, people can train dogs to help with a wide range of conditions, including anxiety, diabetes, and depression.

Psychiatric service dogs

A psychiatric service dog is a dog that helps someone with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorders, or other mental health conditions.

All service dogs have completed specialized training and are legally recognized by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

These dogs can go anywhere with their owner, from restaurants to airplanes.

Benefits of anxiety service dogs

People can train service dogs to perform specific tasks depending on an individual’s needs.

Roles carried out by service dogs for anxiety include:

  • detecting signs of an anxiety attack before it happens
  • fetching medication or water during an anxiety attack
  • bringing someone to help the person in distress
  • preventing strangers from approaching the person in distress
  • calming a person down during an anxiety attack through distraction, such as licking their face or providing a paw
  • providing deep pressure therapy to soothe their owner
  • retrieving a phone during an anxiety attack
  • reminding a person to take their medication at certain times of the day
  • performing safety checks of rooms or turning the lights on for people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Merely being around dogs provides many benefits, including:

  • Exercise. Having a dog is a great way to encourage those with anxiety to exercise. Physical activity can improve symptoms of anxiety and other mental health conditions. It is also vital for physical health.
  • Time outdoors. Walking a dog means spending time outdoors, which can sometimes be difficult for people who experience anxiety or depression. Spending time outdoors can boost people’s mental health and increase their vitamin D intake, which can improve a person’s mood.
  • Company. Dogs provide love and friendship. Having a pet can reduce feelings of loneliness or isolation.
  • Stress relief. Spending time with pets can reduce stress and anxiety and boost happiness. According to a 2015 study, having a pet dog may reduce the risk of anxiety in children.

A 2012 review suggests that interacting with animals may:

  • reduce depression and improve mood
  • encourage more positive interactions with other people
  • lower cortisol levels, which is one of the body’s primary stress hormones
  • lower heart rate and blood pressure
  • lower reported fear and anxiety

How to get a service dog

Image of a service dog for anxiety
A person must meet specific criteria if they want a service dog.

People can get anxiety service dogs from specialist organizations. In some cases, people can register their own dog as a service dog with the help of the National Service Animal Registry.

However, to get a service dog from an organization, a person must meet specific criteria. Criteria may include having:

  • a physical disability or debilitating psychiatric condition
  • a recommendation letter from a doctor or licensed mental health professional
  • strong communication skills and patience
  • the ability to consistently care for and train a service dog
  • the ability to attend a handler training program
  • a love of dogs
  • a stable home environment
  • the finances to care for and maintain a dog for 12 years or more

Many people with anxiety issues may not qualify for getting a service dog. However, some of these people may benefit from having an emotional support animal.

Emotional support animals (ESA) differ from service dogs. While trained service animals perform specific tasks, the law considers ESAs as pets. However, people can still experience tremendous benefits from living with an ESA.

ESAs are companion animals that a medical professional thinks will provide support to a person with a mental or physical health difficulty.

ESAs do not have the same legal protections that service animals do. However, they do have some protections, such as an exemption from no-pet housing rules.

Those who would like an ESA must get a letter from a licensed mental health professional to say that an animal improves at least one characteristic of their condition.

How much does a service dog cost?

Service dogs can be expensive because of the high cost of all the training that is involved.

According to Little Angels Service Dogs, many service dog organizations throughout the United States spend between $30,000 and $40,000 per trained dog.

Each dog receives an average of more than 600 hours of training, along with veterinary care, boarding, and grooming.

Some people choose to train the dog themselves, with the help of a certified trainer. This option is less expensive, but it can still involve high costs.

However, some organizations can help people find service dogs at little or no cost. This is because they meet some or all the expenses through fundraising.

Service dog breeds

Any breed of dog can become a service dog. The most important factors are the individual dog’s temperament, and its ability to complete training.

Some of the breeds that work well as service dogs include:

  • boxers
  • German shepherds
  • golden retrievers
  • huskies
  • Labrador retrievers
  • poodles

Coping with anxiety

Woman doing yoga
People with anxiety can consider regular exercise to help manage symptoms.

Service dogs are not the only option for people with an anxiety disorder. The most common ways to cope with the condition are psychotherapy and medication.

Psychotherapy helps people to reduce their anxiety symptoms. A common type of therapy for anxiety disorders is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

People may use medications alone or alongside psychotherapy. These may include antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, or sedatives.

People with anxiety might consider making some lifestyle changes to help manage their symptoms. These include:

  • getting regular exercise
  • eating a healthful diet
  • quitting smoking
  • reducing caffeine intake
  • avoiding alcohol and drugs
  • reducing stress through meditation, yoga, and deep breathing activities
  • establishing a regular sleep schedule


Having a service dog can provide a range of benefits to those with anxiety. But it is not always easy to get a service dog, and people must adhere to some strict criteria.

Those who wish to get a psychiatric service dog should speak with a licensed mental health professional to see if a service dog would be appropriate for them.

Individuals who experience anxiety but are not eligible for a service dog may instead get an emotional support animal. Other treatments for the condition include talk therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes.

With treatment, people can recover from their anxiety disorder and enjoy a good quality of life.

Medical News Today: What to know about a watermelon allergy

A watermelon allergy is rare. However, if a person reacts to watermelon, there may be additional foods to avoid.

If a person with an allergy does not eat watermelon often, they may not know what has caused their symptoms. It could be an allergy to a different food, or an unrelated illness.

The symptoms of a watermelon allergy are similar to those of other food allergies. A doctor can perform tests to identify the problematic food.

A watermelon allergy usually develops during childhood, but some people develop it as adults.

What are the symptoms?

Watermelon slices to represent allergy
A person with a watermelon allergy may experience hives or stomach pain.

Watermelon allergies share symptoms with other food allergies. Symptoms usually occur within a few minutes of contact with the melon.

Some of the most common watermelon allergy symptoms include:

  • persistent coughing
  • hives
  • an itchy tongue or throat
  • stomach cramps
  • stomach pain
  • nausea or vomiting

A severe allergic reaction can trigger anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening.

Anyone experiencing a severe reaction to watermelon should receive immediate medical attention. They may require an injection from an epinephrine auto-injector, such as an EpiPen, before help arrives.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

  • trouble breathing
  • trouble swallowing
  • shortness of breath
  • swelling of the throat, face, or tongue
  • nausea
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • wheezing
  • shock (from low blood pressure)
  • vertigo (a feeling of dizziness)

Anyone experiencing a watermelon allergy for the first time should talk to a doctor. The doctor can confirm the diagnosis and provide suggestions about treating and preventing future reactions.


A skin prick test is the most common way to diagnose a watermelon allergy.

The test involves pricking the skin and placing a small sample of watermelon on the area. If a person is allergic, a raised bump is likely to appear on the skin after a few minutes.

Results of a blood test can also indicate an allergy. However, it can take a few days or weeks to receive them.

However, some people may test positive for an allergy but experience no symptoms from the food, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology.

A doctor may request a challenge test, which requires a person to eat a small amount of the food in a clinical setting to see if a reaction occurs.

How to treat an allergic reaction to watermelon

epipen allergy injector
An epinephrine pen can treat a severe allergic reaction.

An individual can usually treat a mild allergic reaction with over-the-counter medication.

If a person knows that they have a severe allergy to watermelon, they should carry an epinephrine auto-injector, in case of accidental exposure.

Anyone who witnesses someone experiencing anaphylaxis should:

  • call emergency medical services
  • assist in using an epinephrine auto-injector
  • help the person remain calm
  • remove restricting clothes, particularly those around the throat
  • lay the person flat with their feet elevated
  • if the person starts to vomit, turn their head without raising it
  • if needed, administer CPR

Do not offer food or drink to a person experiencing anaphylaxis.

If a person has a severe allergic reaction, they should talk to a doctor right away about prescribing an epinephrine auto-injector.

When to see a doctor

A person should see a doctor after their first allergic reaction, particularly if the reaction was severe.

The doctor will take a medical history and discuss symptoms. They may be able to diagnose an allergy, which will be especially helpful for people who are unsure of the cause of their symptoms.

If necessary, the doctor may refer a person to an allergist. They can test for various triggers, prescribe an epinephrine auto-injector, and offer advice.

Watermelon allergies in children and babies

Young children are more likely to develop watermelon allergies than adults.

A doctor will need to diagnose the allergy in a child, and the treatments are similar for children and adults.

Though uncommon, it is possible for babies to be allergic to watermelon. Follow a pediatrician’s advice, and introduce new foods gradually. This can make identifying allergies easier.

Foods to avoid if you have a watermelon allergy

White melon or cantaloupe
A person with a watermelon allergy should avoid other types of melon.

Anyone allergic to watermelon should avoid similar foods and vegetables, such as:

  • honeydew melons
  • cucumbers
  • cantaloupes

A person may also want to avoid foods that cause similar reactions in the body, including:

  • kiwis
  • celery
  • peaches
  • bananas
  • oranges
  • avocados
  • zucchini
  • tomatoes
  • papayas

Ragweed pollen can also trigger reactions during the summer months.

Before ordering a restaurant in a meal, inform the server about any food allergies.


Watermelon allergies are uncommon, but they can trigger reactions ranging from mild to severe. The allergy is most common in children.

Most people can control or prevent allergic reactions by taking over-the-counter medications and avoiding triggers.

A doctor can help a person with a severe allergy to prepare for accidental exposure.

Medical News Today: Technology has driven us into a cognition crisis. Is there anything we can do about it?

Remember those few minutes you spent on Instagram during your lunch break? They might make you less productive. The blue light reflecting from your television? It’ll prevent you from falling asleep. The slew of angry rants you read on Twitter? They’ll nearly drive you crazy.
iPhone and charger
‘The cognition crisis is a major concern for our generation.’

There’s no question that as technologies evolve and our devices become more embedded in our lives, we start entering dangerous territory.

“It’s called the cognition crisis,” says Dr. Adam Gazzaley, Ph.D., professor of Neurology and Psychiatry Physiology at University of California, San Francisco.

“There is strong evidence of the negative toll technology can take — from emotional regulation; the association with depression, anxiety, and attention deficit; and the impact on productivity, performance, relationships, compassion, empathy, and a number of other aspects.”

Gazzaley, the author of The Distracted Mind, has spent much of his career researching the link between human nature and how we interact with technology. “From an evolutionary perspective, we are information-seeking creatures,” he tells Thrive Global. “Evidence suggests that we essentially forage for information the same way other animals forage for food. We have a driving force to be informed.”

Gazzaley says technology has challenged us, granting unprecedented access to information that is shifting the way we interact with the environment. His research looks at some of the underlying causes of why we are so susceptible to these negative consequences.

“It’s not black and white,” says Gazzaley. “This story is complex and it’s timely. It’s concerning and it’s real.”

The question we must ask is not how to eliminate, but how to fix, according to Gazzaley. “We are not putting the tech genie back in the bottle,” he says. “[Technology is] not going away, especially for our children… That’s why we need to recognize the full extent of its influence  —  and explore creative approaches to addressing it.” Instead of asking ourselves how to stay away from our devices, we need to reframe the question. As Gazzaley puts it, “How can we use technology to create powerful experiences that maximally harness our brain’s plasticity and elevate our minds?”

According to Gazzaley’s research, there are three pathways we can take when it comes to solving the problem that isn’t going away. The first action is in our control. “Use technology in a better way,” he suggests. “Make smart decisions about when and where and how you use technology.” The second is up to the companies behind the addictive products:

We need a call for accountability through the tech world itself. Instead of asking how many eyeballs are on a product, companies should be asking if the product has potential to hurt people.”

These solutions aren’t impossible, and some are even starting to form in the broader tech industry conversation. Whether it’s the screen time rules we try to set in our homes, the phone-free dinners that are so difficult to implement, or the new Apple iOS features that try to convince users to spend less time online, we’re beginning to see a cultural shift surrounding our devices — specifically, setting boundaries with them.

But the third solution comes down to the root of the technology’s development — and Gazzaley is optimistic about a new potential chapter in tech. “There is an exciting opportunity for all the new tech and artificial intelligence we have now,” he told me. “We should be developing new technology from scratch that is designed not to harm us, but to help us — to improve how we pay attention and regulate our emotions, how we make decisions, how we build empathy and compassion.”

The cognition crisis is a major concern for our generation, and without overgeneralizing, it is possible that those mindless minutes on Insta might end up hindering your productivity — but let’s remember the platforms themselves are not going anywhere, so it’s time we regroup. Gazzaley says if we continue to proceed without thought, we are more likely to wind up in a future where we are apologizing for the things we’ve created. Instead, let’s use our resources to start anew, Gazzaley suggests. “Let’s really start developing all of this new powerful technology so we can enhance what makes us human and not diminish it.”

Written by Rebecca Muller and originally published on Thrive Global.

Medical News Today: Cancer research: Zombie genes and elephants

An intriguing deep dive into elephant genetics helps explain why they are less susceptible to cancer than humans. The answer comes in the form of a reanimated “zombie gene.”
Elephant from the front
Elephants may hold clues to cancer prevention.

Around 17 percent of people die from cancer, but the disease is not a problem restricted to humans; it affects a wide range of species.

From cats and dogs to fish and Tasmanian devils — even duck-billed dinosaurs seem to have been afflicted.

Interestingly, under 5 percent of elephants in captivity die from cancer. This is surprising because they live for an average of 70 years and have roughly 100 times as many cells.

Living a long life and having more cells can make cancer more likely to appear. This is due to the fact that each time a cell divides, its DNA is copied, which increases the possibility of errors. As these errors mount up over a long life, cancer is more likely to develop.

The more cells you have, the more opportunities that cancer has. For instance, taller people have a slightly higher cancer risk than shorter people, and the overall number of cells in their body may be part of the reason why.

So, within a species, the number of cells correlates with a greater cancer risk, but between species, this correlation does not appear. This is referred to as Peto’s paradox, named after the cancer epidemiologist Richard Peto who first described this conundrum in the 1970s.

Understanding just what makes larger species more resilient to cancer is both interesting and important; if we can understand how elephant cells outfox tumors, perhaps we can use that knowledge to help reduce humanity’s odds of cancer.

Elephant DNA damage control

In 2015, scientists working independently at the University of Chicago in Illinois and the University of Utah in Salt Lake City made a breakthrough in understanding elephants’ resilience to cancer.

In humans and many other animals, a gene called p53 works as a tumor suppressor; it identifies DNA damage that has not been repaired and triggers cell death. In this way, cells that have the potential to turn rogue are nipped in the bud.

When scientists looked at elephant genomes, they found that they carry at least 20 copies of p53. In comparison, most animals, including us, carry just one copy. The elephant’s extra copies mean that cells with damaged DNA are identified and destroyed more swiftly and efficiently.

Wanting to build on this surprising finding, a team from the University of Chicago recently published a new paper in the journal Cell Reports. The study outlines a second part to the puzzle, explaining further how elephants appear to be able to prevent the development of cancer.

Its authors describe an anticancer gene that has come back from the dead. As senior study author Vincent Lynch, Ph.D., an assistant professor of human genetics, explains, “Genes duplicate all the time. Sometimes they make mistakes, producing nonfunctional versions known as pseudogenes. We often refer to these dismissively as dead genes.”

The rise of the zombie gene

When investigating p53 in elephants, they found that a pseudogene known as leukemia inhibitory factor 6 (LIF6) was no longer a pseudogene and had “come back to life;” it had “evolved a new on-switch.”

The revived function of LIF6 provided another piece of the puzzle; once activated by p53, LIF6 can respond to damaged DNA by attacking and killing the cell. It does this by producing a protein that punctures mitochondrial membranes, thereby destroying the cell’s power supply and swiftly killing it.

This dead gene came back to life. […] This is beneficial because it acts in response to genetic mistakes, errors made when the DNA is being repaired. Getting rid of that cell can prevent a subsequent cancer.”

Vincent Lynch, Ph.D.

This zombie gene appears to have been helping elephants evade cancer for a long time: from 25–30 million years ago. “We can use the tricks of evolution to try to figure out when this defunct gene became functional again,” Lynch explains.

They surmised that the LIF6 gene got turned back on at roughly the same time that the elephant’s groundhog-sized distant relatives started growing in stature. Genetic mutations such as this may have helped elephants evolve into the behemoths they are today.

“Large, long-lived animals must have evolved robust mechanisms to either suppress or eliminate cancerous cells in order to live as long as they do and reach their adult sizes,” explains study co-author Juan Manuel Vazquez.

The findings are intriguing; not only do they provide new insight into cancer, they also give us a glimpse into the evolution of the elephant. Next, the team plans to investigate LIF6, focusing on exactly how it triggers apoptosis.

Medical News Today: Foods to eat for better sex

Humans have looked for ways to improve their sexual experience for thousands of years, including trying to discover the best foods for sex.

Scientists have linked a variety of foods with better sex. In this article, learn about which foods to eat to boost libido, improve stamina, and enhance your sex life.

Foods for circulation and stamina

Man and woman in a kitchen wondering what are the best foods for sex
Following a heart-healthy diet may improve sexual health.

Keeping the circulatory system in good working order is essential for sexual health. Better circulation can lead to an improved sexual response in men and women. This is especially true for the erectile response. Cardiac health is also vital for stamina.

In other words, if it is good for the heart, it is good for a person’s sex life.

The American Heart Association recommend a diet that includes:

  • a wide range of fruits and vegetables
  • whole grains and plenty of fiber
  • healthful oils, such as olive oil and sunflower oil
  • seafood, nuts, and legumes

Research suggests that following this heart-healthy diet can improve certain aspects of sexual health.

Researchers studying the Mediterranean Diet, which follows similar lines to the American Heart Association’s, found that people with metabolic syndrome who followed the diet had fewer problems with erectile dysfunction, otherwise known as ED.

Also, many of the foods featured in a heart-healthy diet, such as avocados, asparagus, nuts, seafood, and fruit, have associations with better sex in both traditional medicine and scientific research.

For example, in Nahuatl — the language once used by the Aztecs — the term for avocados was the same as the term for testicles.

Also, researchers found that people who ate avocados had a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for ED.

Men with metabolic syndrome are almost twice as likely as men without it to experience ED, so adding healthful fats, such as those in avocados, to a varied diet may help.

Foods to boost libido

Foods that can help people improve their libido are commonly called aphrodisiacs, after Aphrodite, the ancient Greek goddess of love.

Oysters are among the most famous aphrodisiacs in history. Their effects may be due to their zinc content.

Zinc is a mineral the body needs every day for many vital functions, such as cell metabolism, stamina, and regulating levels of testosterone. Testosterone is the most important male sex hormone.

One older study found that zinc might be helpful for treating ED in people with chronic kidney disease.

Oysters have more zinc than any other food per serving. Some examples of other foods that are high in zinc are:

  • crab
  • lobster
  • red meat
  • fortified breakfast cereal
  • pine nuts

However, sexual desire is complex and has to do with many more factors than just nutrition, including an individual’s relationships, stress levels, and personal preference.

It is natural for people to experience ups and downs in their interest in sex. Many alternative healthcare practitioners claim diet can help.

While more scientific research is needed, the following foods are possible libido-boosters:

Foods to help maintain an erection

a variety of citrus fruits
Citrus fruits are rich in flavonoids.

When a person has difficulty getting and maintaining an erection, doctors refer to it as ED. According to the Urology Care Foundation, ED affects up to 30 million men in the United States.

Understanding the physical, mental, and emotional factors that contribute to ED can help people choose a diet that promotes better sex.

Factors that contribute to ED include:

  • problems with blood flowing into and staying in the penis
  • damage to nerve centers in the penis
  • side effects of medication, radiation, and other medical treatments
  • depression, anxiety, and stress

Tackling the underlying cause is the best way to treat ED. But another thing people can do is eat more fruit.

In one study, researchers linked a higher fruit intake to a 14 percent reduction in the risk of ED. The flavonoid content of many fruits may be responsible for this improvement.

Foods rich in flavonoids include:

  • berries
  • citrus fruits
  • grapes
  • apples
  • hot peppers
  • cocoa products
  • red wine
  • tea (green, white, and black)

Research in an animal model has also shown that watermelon may be effective against ED. The melon’s content of the amino acid l-citrulline may explain this positive action.

Also, nitric oxide may be beneficial to prevent ED by increasing blood flow and vasodilation.

Beets also contain nitrates, which convert to nitric oxide and may be beneficial for blood flow.


Many people look to their diet to increase their sexual desire, improve their ability to have sex, and increase the pleasure they get from sex.

While research indicates possible links between particular foods and better sex, those seeking the best food for sex should ensure they are eating a balanced, heart-healthy diet.

Medical News Today: Is it safe to reheat rice?

There is a common belief that you should never reheat rice. However, this is not true. It is possible to reheat rice, but people must take precautions to ensure it is safe to eat.

Rice is more problematic than some other leftover foods as it may contain bacteria called Bacillus cereus, which survive some cooking processes.

This bacterium is often the cause of food poisoning from reheated or cooked rice. Food poisoning usually causes diarrhea and vomiting and can cause severe complications in people with other health issues.

If people do not follow food safety guidelines correctly, the bacteria may grow on leftover rice and make people sick. However, handling food correctly can prevent illness.

How to prepare, store, and reheat rice safely

Uncooked rice on a cloth on a table
If a person follows food safety guidelines, they can reheat rice without risk.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) outline the safest ways to cook, store, and reheat food, including rice, properly.

Each of the following steps will ensure that reheated rice has a low risk of making people sick:

1. Wash hands well

Always wash hands thoroughly before preparing and cooking food. Keep utensils that have touched raw animal products separate.

2. Cook the rice properly

When cooking rice, make sure that it reaches a high temperature. Keep it out of the danger zone — between 40°F and 140°F — where bacteria grow rapidly.

Serve rice immediately after cooking.

3. Cool the leftovers quickly

To further reduce bacteria growth, cool food quickly by:

  • Dividing the food into shallow food containers and sealing them with a lid.
  • Placing hot food directly into the fridge or freezer. Risottos or paellas will freeze better than plain rice.
  • Do not leave rice or any hot food sitting out for more than 1 hour.

4. Store leftovers properly

The USDA recommend only storing leftovers for set periods:

  • Dispose of fridge leftovers after 3 to 4 days.
  • Dispose of freezer leftovers after 3 to 4 months.

Store foods at a safe temperature. According to the USDA, room temperature is 90°F, which is the ideal temperature for bacteria to grow. Bacteria grow rapidly between 40°F and 140°F.

  • Store foods at 40°F and below. Make sure the fridge is at this temperature or lower.
  • Throw away any leftovers kept at room temperature for over 2 hours.

5. Reheating

When reheating rice, make sure it is piping hot throughout.

To microwave leftover rice:

  • Open the storage container and remove the lid. For each cup of rice, add 1–2 tablespoons of water. Place the lid lightly back on top to allow the rice to re-steam.
  • Place in the microwave and heat for 3–4 minutes, or until piping hot throughout.
  • Make sure the internal temperature of the rice is at 165°F or higher. If unsure, use a food thermometer.
  • Serve immediately.

To stir-fry leftover rice:

  • Place the rice in a wok or sauté pan with your choice of oil.
  • Turn the stove to medium heat, stirring the rice continuously. Make sure to break up the clumps of rice.
  • Stir continuously to cover the rice evenly in oil.
  • Use a thermometer to make sure internal temperature is at least 165°F.
  • Serve immediately when piping hot.

To steam leftover rice:

  • Place the rice in a saucepan with 1–2 tablespoons of butter or oil.
  • Add 1–2 tablespoons of water for each cup of rice and bring to a simmer. Keep the lid on the saucepan.
  • Stir occasionally. Once the water has boiled off, check that the internal temperature is above 165°F.
  • Serve immediately if piping hot.

It is safe to eat the rice cold as long as it has been cooled and stored correctly. Do not leave reheated rice sitting on the counter.

Following these steps will reduce the risk of food poisoning. Do not reheat the rice more than once as this further increase the risk of food poisoning.

Early symptoms of food poisoning

Woman holding stomach due to nausea
Abdominal pain can be a symptom of food poisoning.

Food poisoning symptoms typically include:

  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • fever
  • chills

The symptoms will come on quickly and should only last a short time. According to one report, there may be up to 84,000 cases of food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus each year in the U.S.

Most people will recover quickly with no complications. Speak to a doctor if:

  • symptoms persist longer than 48 hours
  • symptoms worsen
  • new symptoms appear


Reheating rice is safe when done correctly. It is essential to practice food safety and hygiene whenever cooking.

Following specific steps will reduce bacteria growth and limit the risk of food poisoning from eating reheated rice.

Medical News Today: How to treat peeling skin

Peeling is the body’s way of repairing damaged cells. Peeling skin is harmless and helps the healing process, but it can be itchy and uncomfortable.

Peeling skin is a common problem after a sunburn. In this article, we look at some simple steps that people can try to prevent or treat peeling skin.

How to stop skin from peeling

People can try the following methods to stop their skin from peeling:

1. Aloe vera and moisturizer

Aloe vera plant
Aloe vera can slow or reduce the skin’s peeling process.

Many people find that aloe vera is an effective moisturizer that helps to soothe irritated skin. It is particularly helpful after a sunburn when the skin is feeling hot and painful. Aloe vera gels or lotions can:

  • cool the skin
  • reduce inflammation
  • slow or reduce the skin’s peeling process

Gently apply the lotion with the fingertips. Leave the lotion on top of the sunburn instead of rubbing it in all the way into the skin. This will maximize moisturizing effects and minimize irritation.

Sunburn can dry the skin, and drier skin makes the peeling more intense. Anyone who wishes to stop their skin from peeling after a sunburn should apply moisturizer.

A study published in the International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry recommend using an unscented moisturizer and applying as often as needed to protect the skin following a sunburn.

Some moisturizers may contain ingredients that are not suitable for sunburn. People who are unsure should check with a pharmacist or doctor.

Creams and lotions that contain aloe vera provide the benefits of both aloe vera and moisturizer.

People can find aloe vera gel in many health stores or online.

2. Stay hydrated

Moisturizing is essential for the outside of the body and hydration is important for the inside.

People should aim to drink eight, 8-ounce (oz) glasses of water (64 oz total, or about half a gallon) each day.

3. Use anti-inflammatories

Taking an over-the-counter (OTC) anti-inflammatory pain reliever, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help with peeling skin that is sore or painful.

OTC anti-inflammatory creams, such as cortisone, can help reduce inflammation caused by sunburn. Low-dose cortisone creams are available in most drug stores or supermarkets, and also online.

4. Avoid irritation

Avoid anything that could irritate the burn. Irritation disrupts the healing process and increases damage from the burn.

Avoid the following sources of irritation for sunburn:

  • overly hot or cold water
  • scratching
  • vigorous rubbing or scrubbing

Staying out of the sun for a while keeps the burn from getting worse.

5. Try these home remedies

There is not a great deal of scientific evidence to back up any home or natural remedies for sunburn. But most home or natural remedies are safe to try unless someone misuses them or is allergic.


  • applying menthol shaving cream to the skin
  • adding baking soda to a cool bath
  • putting honey on the skin

How to prevent skin from peeling

Woman applying sunscreen on the beach
A person can avoid sunburn by applying an appropriate sunscreen.

Preventing sunburn in the first place is the best way to prevent the skin from peeling due to sunburn.

One of the simplest ways to prevent sunburn is to apply an appropriate sunscreen before going outside, even on overcast days. Other tips include limiting the time spent in the sun and wearing long-sleeve shirts and pants.

If it is already too late, however, head indoors as soon as possible and grab the aloe vera. Apply liberally to any part of the skin that may be affected. Aloe vera not only slows but also helps prevent peeling.

If possible, take a cool shower and apply the aloe vera or another suitable moisturizer immediately after. Skin absorbs maximum moisture when it is damp.

How long does sunburn take to heal?

A mild-to-moderate burn heals in anywhere from 3 to 5 days. Peeling lasts up to a week, but small amounts of skin can continue to peel for days or even weeks after.

People should avoid pulling off any peeling skin after a sunburn, as the cells underneath may still be vulnerable to infection.

Who is at risk?

Recent evidence published in JAMA Dermatology found that sunburn remains a widespread problem. The problem persists despite greater public awareness of the serious conditions, such as skin cancer, that sunburn can cause.

Anyone can get sunburnt. But, according to the study, younger adults, non-Hispanic white people, and those with sensitive skin are at highest risk of sunburn. People who use, tanning salons, spend lots of time in the sun, or have obesity are also at elevated risk.


Peeling is a natural part of the healing process after a sunburn. There are ways to minimize it or prevent it altogether.

The only surefire prevention method, however, is to avoid getting sunburnt in the first place.

If the pain is severe or there is sickness along with the sunburn, consult a doctor.

Medical News Today: Diets ‘devoid of vegetable matter’ may cause colon cancer

A new study emphasizes the importance to gut health of eating plenty of vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and kale.
selection of greens
Eating brassicas such as collards, kale, and broccoli may protect against colon cancer.

Researchers from the Francis Crick Institute in London, United Kingdom, found that keeping mice on a diet rich in a compound known as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) — which comes from such vegetables — prevented the animals’ intestines from becoming inflamed and developing colon cancer.

They report the study in a paper now published in the journal Immunity.

“Seeing the profound effect,” says study senior author Dr. Brigitta Stockinger, a group leader at the Francis Crick Institute, “of diet on gut inflammation and colon cancer was very striking.”

Our digestive system produces I3C when we eat vegetables from a “large and diverse group” of plants known as brassicas.

Brassicas include, but are not limited to: broccoli, cabbage, collards, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, swede, turnip, bok choi, and mizuna.

Colon cancer typically starts as a growth, or polyp, in the lining of the colon or large intestine. It can take many years for the cancer to develop from a polyp and not all polyps become cancerous.

Cancer of the colon or rectum is the third most commonly diagnosed in both women and men in the United States, not counting skin cancer.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimate that there will be 97,220 new cases of diagnosed colon cancer in the U.S. in 2018.

‘Concrete evidence’ of hidden mechanism

Despite a lot of evidence about the benefits to our digestive system of a diet rich in vegetables, much of the underlying cell biology remains unknown.

The new findings are the first to give “concrete evidence” of how dietary I3C — through its effect on a cell protein known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) — protects the gut from inflammation and cancer.

AhR has several roles, and for it to work properly, it has to be activated by a compound that binds to it uniquely. I3C is such a compound.

One of AhR’s jobs in the gut is to pick up environmental signals and pass them on to immune cells and other cells in the lining. These signals are important for protecting the digestive tract from inflammation-promoting signals that come from the “trillions of bacteria” that live in it.

Another important role that AhR plays is helping stem cells convert into specialized gut lining cells that produce protective mucus and help extract nutrients from food.

When AhR is absent or does not work properly, the stem cells do not convert into working cells in the gut lining but “divide uncontrollably.” Uncontrolled cell division may lead to abnormal growths that can become malignant, or cancerous.

Importance of ‘plant matter’ in diet

Dr. Stockinger and her colleagues saw that normal laboratory mice that ate “purified control diets” developed colon tumors within 10 weeks, while those that ate standard “chow” containing grains and other ingredients did not develop any.

Purified control diets are tightly controlled to include precise amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, minerals, and vitamins. They are designed to exactly match nutritional requirements without including germs, allergens, and other substances that might introduce spurious variables in experiments.

The new study suggests that because purified control diets contain less plant matter, they have fewer compounds that activate AhR, compared with standard chow diets or diets enriched with I3C.

Dr. Chris Schiering, of Imperial College London, remarks that “even without genetic risk factors,” it would seem that “a diet devoid of vegetable matter can lead to colon cancer.”

‘Significantly fewer tumors’

The researchers used mice and organoids, or “mini guts,” grown from mouse stem cells, in their experiments. These revealed that the ability of intestinal epithelial cells to replenish themselves and repair the gut lining after infection or chemical damage was “profoundly influenced” by AhR.

The team also found that genetically engineered mice whose intestinal epithelial cells had no AhR — or could not activate the protein — failed to control an infection from a gut bacterium called Citrobacter rodentium. The animals developed gut inflammation and then colon cancer.

“However, when we fed them a diet enriched with I3C, they did not develop inflammation or cancer,” remarks first author Dr. Amina Metidji, also of the Francis Crick Institute.

Additionally, notes Dr. Metidji, when they switched mice that were already developing colon cancer to a diet rich in I3C, they found that those animals developed “significantly fewer tumors” and that those tumors were less likely to be malignant.

In discussing their results, the researchers raise the issue of whether it is the high fat content or the low consumption of vegetables in high-fat diets that explains the link to colon cancer.

The scientists now expect to continue the work on I3C and AhR with organoids grown from human gut tissue extracted in biopsies. Eventually, they expect the work to lead to human trials.

These findings are a cause for optimism; while we can’t change the genetic factors that increase our risk of cancer, we can probably mitigate these risks by adopting an appropriate diet with plenty of vegetables.”

Dr. Brigitta Stockinger

Medical News Today: Why cannabis relieves IBD symptoms

New research, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, reveals the molecular mechanism that explains why cannabis could help treat inflammatory bowel disease.
marijuana leaf
Marijuana may hold the key to future anti-inflammatory treatments.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term that describes inflammatory conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

In the United States, approximately 1.6 million people are living with such disorders. Almost 70,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.

The chronic inflammation in IBD leads to often debilitating symptoms, such as abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, fatigue, and diarrhea.

Older studies and anecdotal reports have shown that people who use cannabis experience and maintain remission of the condition. Cannabis users say that the drug helps them to successfully manage “abdominal pain, joint pain, cramping, diarrhea, poor appetite, weight loss, and nausea.”

What could explain this therapeutic effect? For the first time, researchers were able to find a biological mechanism that shows how cannabis relieves intestinal inflammation in IBD.

The scientists were led by Beth A. McCormick, vice chair and a professor of microbiology and physiological systems at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester.

How cannabinoids stop the inflammation

Prof. McCormick and her colleagues started their research by acknowledging an already known inflammation process that occurs when the body is infected with a pathogen.

The so-called neutrophil influx is a normal reaction of the immune system that sends neutrophils — a type of white blood cell — to fight against foreign microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria.

However, if the immune cells react disproportionately, they can also destroy the epithelium, which is the protective layer of cells that lines the inside of the intestine.

So, in order to stop the overreaction of the immune response, special molecules are “dispatched” and transported across the epithelium to stop the inflammation.

The team found that the second process requires endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), which are naturally produced by our bodies and have a similar effect to the cannabinoids in cannabis.

By performing experiments in mice and human cell lines, the team found that if endocannabinoids are lacking or are insufficient, the body cannot control the inflammation process anymore and the neutrophils attack the protective intestinal layer.

The scientists believe that cannabis makes up for the natural cannabinoids, inducing the same anti-inflammatory effect that endocannabinoids would have.

Prof. McCormick comments on the findings, saying, “There’s been a lot of anecdotal evidence about the benefits of medical marijuana, but there hasn’t been a lot of science to back it up.”

For the first time, we have an understanding of the molecules involved in the process and how endocannabinoids and cannabinoids control inflammation. This gives clinical researchers a new drug target to explore to treat patients [with IBD].”

Prof. Beth A. McCormick

Study co-author Randy Mrsny, a professor in the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology at the University of Bath in the United Kingdom, also weighs in with a clarification.

According to him, “We need to be clear that while this is a plausible explanation for why marijuana users have reported cannabis relieves symptoms of IBD, we have thus far only evaluated this in mice and have not proven this experimentally in humans.”

“We hope, however, that these findings will help us develop new ways to treat bowel diseases in humans,” Prof. Mrsny concludes.

Medical News Today: Stage 4 melanoma: What you need to know

Melanoma is a cancer of the skin cells. In stage 4 melanoma, the cancer is advanced and has spread from its place of origin to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, brain, or liver.

As it spreads, stage 4 melanoma can be challenging to treat. Advanced forms of melanoma are the third leading cause of cancer spreading to the brain, after lung and breast cancer.

Melanoma occurs when the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes mutate and become cancerous. It can develop on any part of the body but is more likely to affect the chest, neck, back, and face. Melanoma is also common on the legs in women.

Survival rate

Doctor in office speaking to senior male patient
A person’s response to treatment will affect their chance of survival.

According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for stage 4 melanoma is 15–20 percent. This means that an estimated 15–20 percent of people with stage 4 melanoma will be alive 5 years after diagnosis.

Many different factors influence an individual’s chance of survival. Survival rates are estimates that use data from large group studies and do not take individual circumstances into account.

People’s age and their response to treatment can affect survival rates, as well as the availability of new treatment options.

Doctors previously considered advanced melanoma to be untreatable, but today the outlook has significantly improved.

Recognizing the signs and symptoms

The most noticeable sign of melanoma is the appearance of a new mole or a change in an existing mole or birthmark. People should be aware of any pigmented areas on the skin that appear abnormal in color, shape, size, or texture.

People with stage 4 melanoma may also have ulcerated skin, which is skin with tiny breaks on the surface. These ulcerations can bleed.

Another sign is swollen or hard lymph nodes, which a doctor can confirm by carrying out a physical examination. Other tests include blood tests and imaging scans to confirm the presence of cancer and check how much it has spread.



Doctors may use traditional methods to treat stage 4 melanoma. These include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Newer methods of treatment for stage 4 melanoma include immunotherapy and targeted therapy. These treatments specifically target and destroy the cancer cells, avoiding damage to surrounding healthy cells.

In about half of all melanoma cases, there are mutations or genetic changes in a gene called the BRAF gene.

People with melanoma who have this mutated gene can use targeted therapy drugs called BRAF inhibitors. These medicines attack the BRAF protein and shrink or slow the growth of the cancer cells.


Woman jogging or running on bridge
Physical activity can aid the recovery process.

People can do a few things to make it easier to cope with a stage 4 melanoma diagnosis, the treatment, and the post-treatment journey:

  • Keep all follow-up appointments: It is vital to see a doctor frequently to discuss any side effects and check for new signs of melanoma. People with advanced-stage melanomas should have physical exams every 3–6 months for several years, even after completing treatment.
  • Get emotional support: In addition to the physical burden of the disease, cancer can be stressful and emotionally distressing. Some people may have anxiety, while others experience feelings of denial, anger, and depression. It is crucial to speak openly about these feelings and seek help from loved ones, support groups, and therapists.
  • Consult a nutrition expert or lifestyle counselor: Eating a healthful diet and increasing physical activity levels can smooth a person’s recovery and improve their long-term health.

Treatment can completely cure melanoma in many cases, especially when it has not spread extensively. However, melanoma can also recur.

It is natural to have questions about the treatment, its side effects, and the chances of cancer recurring. People with concerns should discuss them with a doctor who can offer advice that takes their medical history and overall health into account.


Stage 4 melanoma is much more treatable today than it was a few decades ago. Monitoring moles and skin changes can help a person catch melanoma in the early stages and reduce the risk of it spreading.

People who do not respond to current treatments can also consider enrolling in clinical trials. These studies continue to look for new targeted drugs and combinations of treatments that can improve anti-cancer care and quality of life.

Anyone dealing with a stage 4 melanoma diagnosis should talk to a doctor frequently about their symptoms and reach out to loved ones and professionals for emotional support.

Medical News Today: New technique treats prostate cancer in just five radiotherapy sessions

A new clinical trial shows the benefits of an innovative form of radiation therapy, which delivers the radiation in only five sessions instead of the usual 37.
blue ribbon
A new form of radiotherapy may significantly improve survival for people with prostate cancer.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimate that prostate cancer affects over 160,000 people in the United States. In 2018, almost 30,000 people will die from the disease.

As with most forms of cancer, treatment options range from surgery to radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy.

Usually, radiotherapy involves 37 sessions. That said, a new clinical trial tests a radical form of radiotherapy that could reduce that number down to just five.

The trial examined the effects of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), a highly targeted form of radiotherapy that uses several beams of radiation at once.

The beams intersect at the tumor, delivering a high dose of radiation to the malignancy but a very low dose to the surrounding healthy tissue.

However, SABR may have some side effects, including tiredness, itchy or dry skin, and soreness or swelling where the treatment was applied. In the case of prostate cancer, radiation therapy may cause urinary problems, bowel problems, and even impotence.

In the new trial, however, the participants also benefited from SpaceOAR, which is a hydrogel previously shown to minimize the side effects of radiation therapy in prostate cancer.

The trial was jointly led by Suneil Jain, a clinical senior lecturer at Queen’s University in Belfast, United Kingdom, together with Ciaran Fairmichael, a clinical research fellow also at Queen’s University.

The researchers published the results of the trial in the British Journal of Radiology.

Spacer improves high-dose treatment

SpaceOAR is a minimally invasive hydrogel rectal spacer. Co-lead researcher Fairmichael explains, “One of the complications from using radiotherapy is the potential damage that can be inflicted on neighboring tissues.”

“In this trial,” he adds, “we are evaluating the performance of the SpaceOAR hydrogel which is inserted between the prostate gland and the rectum of the patient.”

“This creates a greater distance between the prostate tumor and other tissues, which allows us to concentrate the radiotherapy dosage provided to the tumor and thus reducing the chance of radiation harming other tissues close to the tumor such as the bowel.”

The trial tested the tolerability and toxicity of inserting this spacer in six people living with prostate cancer. The researchers used computed tomography (CT) scans to plan the insertion, delivered local anesthetic, and used CT scans again to assess the position of the spacer.

Inserting the spacer minimized the probability of side effects and reduced rectal bleeding. “This is one of the first studies to investigate the efficacy of a hydrogel spacer in prostate SABR treatments,” write the authors.

“Observed dose sparing of the rectum is predicted to result in meaningful clinical benefit,” they conclude.

The trial participants also comment on how the treatment benefited them. Gordon Robinson, who is 70 years old and took part in the trial, says, “If it wasn’t for this research, I simply would not be here. My family and I are so thankful to the doctors who have helped us. This treatment has allowed me to live my life again.”

Taking part in this trial meant I was offered a high-dose five-treatment course instead of enduring 2 months of treatment. The treatment was really successful in getting rid of my tumor.”

Gordon Robinson

“I knew about the side effects of treatment,” Robinson continues, “and they really frightened me, but this trial meant I had very little discomfort or complications and can return to normal life.”

Medical News Today: Vision loss in glaucoma may be due to immune response

In glaucoma, pressure builds up inside the eye and damages the optic nerve, which leads to vision loss. However, scientists note that even in some people treated for the pressure buildup, who regain regular intraocular pressure, vision loss still occurs. New research finds out why that is.
person undergoing eye exam
Scientists uncover a hidden culprit in glaucoma: the immune response.

Dr. Dong Feng Chen and his colleagues — at Massachusetts Eye and Ear in Boston and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge — were interested in learning why people with glaucoma who undergo treatments to lower their eye pressure are not always protected from progressive loss of eyesight.

Also, some people diagnosed with glaucoma do not, in fact, have abnormal pressure inside the eye.

So, the researchers suspected that the reason lay beyond the buildup of pressure on the optic nerve, and they turned their attention to the activity of immune cells in the eye.

Their findings — which appear in the journal Nature Communications — indicate that an immune response to bacterial exposure may actually drive loss of vision, and this discovery, the team hopes, could lead to better, more targeted treatments of this eye condition.

“Our work shows that there is hope for finding a cure for glaucoma, or even preventing its development entirely, if we can find a way to target this pathway,” explains Dr. Chen.

“Current glaucoma therapies,” the researcher goes on, “are designed solely to lower eye pressure; however, we’ve known that, even when patients with glaucoma are treated and their eye pressure returns to normal, they can still go on to have vision loss.”

Now, we know that stress from high eye pressure can initiate an immune response that triggers T cells to attack neurons in the eye.”

Dr. Dong Feng Chen

T cell response leads to vision loss

After some analyses of mouse models of glaucoma and blood samples from people diagnosed with a common type of glaucoma, the researchers identified the mechanism leading to progressive and permanent loss of eyesight.

The authors explain that when excessive pressure builds up in the eye, it stimulates the expression of a type of protein known as “heat shock proteins,” or “stress proteins,” which play a key role in certain immune responses.

When these proteins are released, memory T cells (a type of immune cell) promptly respond, and they do so by attacking the retinal ganglion cells, which are a type of neuron that receives visual impulses from photoreceptors and then transmits this information to the brain to be decoded.

As a result of the T cells’ attack, the optic nerve is damaged and loss of vision follows.

The researchers’ first step was to look at mouse models of glaucoma. They studied three different groups of mice with this eye condition: one that did not express T cells, one that did not express B cells (a type of white cell with a role in immunity), and one with neither T cells nor B cells.

Exposure to bacteria may be key

Dr. Chen and colleagues found that mice with glaucoma lost retinal neurons only if they expressed functional T cells. Additionally, in order for T cells to attack the retinal ganglion cells and damage the optic nerve, the mice had to have been exposed to bacteria in their environment.

The mice that grew up in an entirely germ-free environment did not develop signs of glaucoma, even when they had elevated eye pressure.

In addition to these in vivo experiments, the research team also looked at blood samples from people with the most common type of glaucoma — namely, primary open angle glaucoma.

The team noticed that in samples taken from people with glaucoma, T cell activity was more than five times higher than in blood samples collected from individuals without glaucoma.

Thanks to this discovery, Dr. Chen and team believe that, in the future, experts may be able to target T cell activity in the eye in order to prevent full loss of vision in people with glaucoma.

Moreover, the researchers note that since heat shock proteins play a role in other eye and brain conditions, their new findings may even have a wider application.

Medical News Today: Which fruits should you eat during pregnancy?

Making healthful food choices is crucial for women when they are pregnant. Their diet will provide the fetus with the nutrients essential for growth and development.

A nutritious diet plays an essential role in a person’s overall health, helping the body to function effectively and reducing the risk of some diseases.

Most people are aware that a healthful diet should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthful fats. However, they may not realize that specific fruits are particularly beneficial during pregnancy.

In this article, we explain why it is important to eat fruit during pregnancy. We also cover which fruits are best to eat during this time, and which types of fruit pregnant women may wish to avoid.

What are the benefits of eating fruit during pregnancy?

Pregnant woman holding fruit including apples and oranges by tummy bump
Fruits provide vitamins and nutrients that are essential during pregnancy.

Eating a healthful, varied diet is particularly important during pregnancy as the right nutrients can help the fetus to develop and grow as it should.

In addition to supporting the growing baby, an increased intake of vitamins and minerals can help a pregnant woman keep her own body in the best condition possible.

Eating plenty of fresh fruit during pregnancy can help to ensure that both the woman and baby remain healthy. Fresh fruit contains lots of essential vitamins and nutrients and is a good source of fiber too.

The best fruits to eat during pregnancy

Snacking on fruit can be a great way to boost vitamin intake in addition to curbing sugar cravings.

Below, we list 12 of the best fruits to include in a healthful pregnancy diet.

1. Apricots

Apricots contain:

All of these nutrients help with the baby’s development and growth. Iron can prevent anemia and calcium helps bones and teeth grow strong.

2. Oranges

Oranges are an excellent source of:

Oranges are great for keeping a person hydrated and healthy. Vitamin C can help prevent cell damage and assist with iron absorption.

Folate can help prevent neural tube defects, which can cause brain and spinal cord abnormalities in a baby. Neural tube defects can cause conditions such as spina bifida, where the spinal cord does not develop properly, and anencephaly, in which a large part of the brain and skull is missing.

3. Mangoes

Mangoes are rich in vitamins A and C.

One cup of chopped mango provides 100 percent of a person’s recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C and more than a third of their RDA of vitamin A.

A baby born with vitamin A deficiency may have lower immunity and a higher risk of postnatal complications, such as respiratory infections.

4. Pears

Pears provide lots of the following nutrients:

  • fiber
  • potassium
  • folate

Getting plenty of fiber in a pregnancy diet can help ease constipation, a common pregnancy symptom.

Potassium can benefit heart health for both the woman and baby. It also stimulates cell regeneration.

5. Pomegranates

Pomegranates can provide pregnant women with plenty of:

  • vitamin K
  • calcium
  • folate
  • iron
  • protein
  • fiber

Nutrient-dense pomegranates are also a good source of energy, and their high iron content helps prevent iron-deficiency.

Vitamin K is also essential for maintaining healthy bones.

Research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice may help to decrease the risk of injury to the placenta.

6. Avocados

Avocados are an excellent source of:

  • vitamins C, E, and K
  • monounsaturated fatty acids
  • fiber
  • B vitamins
  • potassium
  • copper

Avocados contain healthful fats that provide energy and help to prevent neural tube defects. They also boost the cells responsible for building the skin and brain tissues of the developing baby.

The potassium in avocados can provide relief from leg cramps, another symptom that is common during pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester.

7. Guava

Papaya fruit
Guava contains vitamin E and folate, making it an ideal fruit to eat during pregnancy.

Guava is an excellent choice of fruit for people wanting more of the following nutrients:

  • vitamins C and E
  • polyphenols
  • carotenoids
  • isoflavonoids
  • folate

Guava contains a varied combination of nutrients, making it ideal for pregnant women. Eating guava during pregnancy can help to relax muscles, aid digestion, and reduce constipation.

8. Bananas

Bananas contain high levels of:

  • vitamin C
  • potassium
  • vitamin B-6
  • fiber

The high fiber content of bananas can help with pregnancy-related constipation, and there is some evidence to suggest that vitamin B-6 can help relieve nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

9. Grapes

Eating plenty of grapes can boost people’s intake of:

  • vitamins C and K
  • folate
  • antioxidants
  • fiber
  • organic acids
  • pectin

The nutrients in grapes can help to aid the biological changes that occur during pregnancy.

They contain immune-boosting antioxidants, such as flavonol, tannin, linalool, anthocyanins, and geraniol, which also help prevent infections.

10. Berries

Berries are a good source of:

Berries also contain lots of water, so they are an excellent source of hydration. Vitamin C helps with iron absorption and boosts the body’s immune system.

11. Apples

Apples are packed with nutrients to help a growing fetus, including:

  • vitamins A and C
  • fiber
  • potassium

One study found that eating apples while pregnant may reduce the likelihood of the baby developing asthma and allergies over time.

12. Dried Fruit

The following nutrients occur in dried fruit:

  • fiber
  • vitamins and minerals
  • energy

Dried fruit contains all the same nutrients as fresh fruit. Therefore, pregnant women can get their RDA of vitamins and minerals by eating portions of dried fruits that are smaller than the equivalent amount of fresh fruits.

However, it is important to remember that dried fruit can be high in sugar and does not contain the water content that fresh fruit does. This means that it does not aid digestion. Pregnant women should only eat dried fruits in moderation and should avoid candied fruits altogether.

It is best to eat dried fruits in addition to fresh fruits, rather than instead of them.

How much fruit should someone eat during pregnancy?

The advice for pregnant women is to eat at least five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables each day and to vary these as much as possible. Fruit can be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried.

As a general rule, a serving of fruit is:

  • one piece of fruit, for fruits that are larger than the size of a tennis ball
  • one cup of chopped fruit

Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables during pregnancy provides pregnant women with adequate nutrition to support their developing baby. It should also minimize the risk of certain diseases and defects and help to nourish the woman’s body.

Are there any fruits a person should avoid during pregnancy?

Bottles of fruit and vegetable juice
Fruit juice has a high sugar content.

There is no particular fruit that pregnant women should avoid. However, it is essential for women to be aware of portion size. Some fruits have a high sugar content, and certain forms of fruit, such as juices and dried fruits, are often significantly higher in sugar and calories than their fresh counterparts.

Buying organic fruit will ensure that it has not come into contact with fertilizers and pesticides that could damage its quality. However, if organic fruit is not an option, non-organic fruit is still better than eliminating fruit from the diet altogether.

It is important to remove any pesticides and bacteria that might be present on fruit by washing it thoroughly before eating it. People should take other safety precautions by:

  • removing areas of bruised fruit, which are more likely to contain bacteria
  • storing fruit in a separate area of the fridge to any raw meat products
  • avoiding precut melons
  • only drinking pasteurized or boiled fruit juice


Fruit is an excellent source of nutrients that are essential during pregnancy. Fruits can provide vitamins, folate, fiber, and more, which all help to keep the woman and baby healthy. These nutrients can also help to relieve some of the common symptoms of pregnancy.

Pregnant women should aim to consume at least five different portions of fruit and vegetables each day. The 12 fruits listed in this article are particularly good choices during pregnancy. Pregnant women should also limit their intake of dried fruits and fruit juices as these can be high in sugar and calories than fresh types.

Medical News Today: What is the outlook for chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

Survival rates for chronic lymphocytic leukemia are good compared to many other cancers. Although doctors cannot often cure the disease, a person can live with this form of leukemia for many years with treatment.

In this article, we talk about survival rates for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the factors that can influence a person’s life expectancy. We also discuss how to achieve a good quality of life with CLL.

CLL overview

Anxious senior lady
CLL does not usually present symptoms, and older adults are more likely to be affected by it.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood. Lymphocytic leukemia begins in the white blood cells, known as lymphocytes. These cells originate in the bone marrow.

When a person has lymphocytic leukemia, white blood cells become leukemia cells, which can spread into the blood and other parts of the body.

CLL happens when white blood cells do not fully mature. They cannot fight infection properly, and they build up in the bone marrow. This means healthy white blood cells do not have as much room to thrive. Healthy white blood cells are crucial for fighting disease.

CLL does not usually have any symptoms, and someone may only discover they have it when they have a routine blood test. If a person does have symptoms, they may include the following:

  • swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, under the arms, or in the groin
  • weight loss without an obvious cause
  • extreme tiredness
  • fever or high temperature, often due to an infection

There are two forms of CLL. The cells for each form are slightly different, but doctors can only tell the cells apart by testing them in a laboratory.

One form of CLL progresses very slowly, and a person may not need treatment for some time. The second form progresses more quickly and is considered to be more severe.

Doctors can only very rarely cure CLL. This means that a person must live with the disease, and is likely to need ongoing treatment. Often, people do not require treatment for a while.

Older adults are more likely than others to be affected by CLL, with 70 years being the average age of diagnosis. Those under the age of 40 years old are very unlikely to experience this type of cancer.

Survival rates

Survival rates can give a person more information about the outlook for their illness and help them to plan treatment and care. However, survival rates are only ever an estimate.

To find survival rates, researchers look at information about a group of people with a recent CLL diagnosis. Five years later, they look at data on the same group of people. The percentage of people in that group who are still living with the disease 5 years on is the survival rate.

This does not mean that life expectancy for a person with CLL is 5 years. Researchers typically collect data for survival rates at 1, 5, or 10 years after diagnosis.

Someone may live significantly longer than 5 years after a diagnosis of CLL. Researchers base survival rates on information from people who had a diagnosis of CLL 5 years before. So, if better treatments have become available in the following 5 years, people who have had a recent diagnosis may find the survival rates have improved.

In the United States, survival rates for leukemia have improved significantly over the past 40 years. The current survival rate for CLL is 83 percent. This means that about 83 out of every 100 people with CLL will be alive 5 years after diagnosis.

Factors that influence life expectancy

couple sitting down holding hands
A person’s life expectancy may shorten with a higher CLL stage.

Doctors talk about stages to indicate how far cancer has progressed in a person’s body. Because leukemia affects the blood, doctors cannot stage it in this way.

There are two systems for staging leukemia: the Rai system and the Binet system. In the U.S., doctors use the Rai system more commonly.

In the Rai system, a person will have blood tests to check for cancer cells and to find out how many white blood cells are in the blood and bone marrow. Alongside a physical exam, this information can give one of five stages for CLL:

  • Stage 0: Increased number of white blood cells.
  • Stage 1: Increased number of white blood cells, enlarged lymph nodes.
  • Stage 2: Increased number of white blood cells, enlarged spleen, lymph nodes may be enlarged, liver may be enlarged.
  • Stage 3: Increased number of white blood cells, low number of red blood cells, lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be enlarged.
  • Stage 4: Increased number of white blood cells, low number of platelets, number of red blood cells may be low, enlarged lymph nodes, liver, or spleen.

A higher stage number means that CLL is impacting more of the body. A higher stage will often shorten a person’s life expectancy.

Other factors that can affect survival rates include:

  • whether CLL has come back or improved with treatment
  • how cancer cells have spread in the bone marrow
  • if there are changes to a person’s DNA and what they are
  • a person’s general health

People often feel better and live for longer when they receive treatment for CLL. Treatment focuses on stopping or slowing down the spread of CLL. If the condition is at an early stage, it may not need treatment.

Treatment options for CLL include:

After treatment, a person is likely to have periods of time when they have few or no symptoms of CLL. This is often known as remission. At the current time, medical professionals do not know if a person can reduce their risk of CLL coming back.

Living with CLL

Although there is no cure for CLL, ongoing treatment can help a person to live with the condition for a long time. There are several ways that someone who has CLL can support their health and wellbeing.

Going to all medical appointments is an essential part of managing any side effects of medication and treatment. When a doctor sees an individual at regular appointments, they have the chance to check for signs that CLL may be returning and treat it quickly.

Staying as healthy as possible can help with general health and wellbeing. People with CLL may find benefit from doing gentle exercise and eating a healthful diet.

Many people find living with a lifelong condition challenging. Getting emotional support and expressing feelings can help. A listening shoulder may be from friends, family, or community groups. In the U.S., the American Cancer Society offers information on local support groups and information services.

Having correct information can give a person more control and understanding. Finding out as much as possible about CLL and consulting with a doctor on how to lead a healthy lifestyle can help with decisions about treatment and care.


Doctors can very rarely cure CLL. However, survival rates for this cancer are good, particularly with early diagnosis and treatment. People can live with CLL for many years after diagnosis, and some can live for years without the need for treatment.

Medical News Today: Eight exercises for tennis elbow

Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondylitis. It occurs when a person strains the tendons in their forearm. People can usually treat tennis elbow at home with rest and over-the-counter medication. Doing specific exercises can also help ease the pain and prevent reoccurrence.

We describe eight exercises to help strengthen muscles in the forearm and prevent tennis elbow from coming back. We also cover causes and symptoms, home treatment, prevention, and when to see a doctor.

Before trying these exercises, wait for any swelling to go down. It is also a good idea to check with a doctor or a physical or occupational therapist first.


The following exercises can help rehabilitate tennis elbow:

1. Wrist turn

To perform a wrist turn:

  • bend the elbow at a right angle
  • extend the hand outwards, palm facing up
  • twist the wrist around gradually, until the palm is facing down
  • hold the position for 5 seconds
  • repeat nine more times
  • do two more sets of 10 repetitions

2. Wrist turn with weight

The wrist turn with weight is the same as the wrist turn above. But, in this version, the person also grips a light weight, such as a small dumbbell or a tin of food.

3. Wrist lift, palm up

wrist lift with dumbbell

To perform a wrist lift, palm up:

  • grip a light weight, such as a small dumbbell or a tin of food
  • bend the elbow at a right angle
  • extend the hand outwards, palm facing up
  • bend the wrist up towards the body
  • hold this position for 5 seconds, then release slowly
  • repeat nine more times
  • do two more sets of 10 repetitions

4. Elbow bend

To perform the elbow bend:

  • stand straight
  • lower the arm to one side
  • slowly bend the arm upwards until the hand touches the shoulder
  • hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds
  • repeat nine more times

5. Wrist extensor stretch

To perform the wrist extensor stretch:

  • raise the arm straight out in front of the body
  • with the palm facing down, slowly bend the wrist downwards
  • using the other hand, gently pull the stretching hand back towards the body
  • hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds
  • straighten the wrist again
  • repeat twice
  • do two more sets of 3 repetitions

6. Wrist extensor flex

extensor flex exercise

To perform the wrist extensor flex:

  • raise the arm straight out in front of the body
  • with the palm facing down, slowly bend the wrist upwards
  • using the other hand, gently pull the fingers back towards the body
  • hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds
  • straighten the wrist again
  • repeat twice
  • do two more sets of 3 repetitions

7. Fist squeeze

To perform the fist squeeze:

  • use a rolled-up towel, sock, or tennis ball and place in the palm
  • grip the ball or towel with the fingers to form a fist
  • squeeze tightly for 10 seconds
  • repeat nine more times

8. Towel twist

towel twist exercise for tennis elbow

To perform the towel twist:

  • hold a loosely rolled-up towel lengthways, with one hand at each end
  • keep the shoulders relaxed
  • twist the towel by moving the hands in opposite directions, as if wringing out water
  • repeat nine more times
  • then repeat ten more times twisting the towel in the reverse direction

Causes and symptoms

woman holding elbow
Tennis elbow causes pain and tenderness of the elbow.

People call this condition tennis elbow because it strains the muscles and tendons that a person uses to grip a tennis racket. However, most cases of tennis elbow are not due to playing tennis or any other sport. Any activity that involves a gripping and twisting motion can cause this strain.

Tennis elbow usually occurs because of repetitive activity. Carpenters, painters, and plumbers are particularly susceptible.

Symptoms of tennis elbow vary from person to person and range from mild to severe. Typical symptoms include pain in the arm and tenderness around the elbow.

A person may notice swelling and a burning sensation around the elbow. They may find that their grip becomes weaker and may also feel pain further down the arm.

Continuation of the repetitive activity causing the strain can make it worse.

Home treatment

People with tennis elbow do not typically need to see a doctor. By stopping the repetitive activity and resting the arm, the pain usually eases within 2 weeks.

A person can treat tennis elbow at home by:

  • taking over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers, such as ibuprofen or another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
  • using an ice pack, heat pack, or hot water bottle on the affected area to soothe the pain
  • learning how to protect the joints to avoid reoccurrence


icepack on the elbow
Placing an ice pack on the elbow will help reduce inflammation.

Ceasing or reducing repetitive activities and resting the arm can aid recovery. When resting is not possible, adjusting arm movements can help to ease symptoms. For example, a person can try keeping their palms flat and elbows bent when lifting.

Doing exercises designed for tennis elbow helps strengthen forearm muscles and improve function. People whose jobs involve a repetitive movement of the forearm should do these exercises to prevent tennis elbow returning.

Always consult a doctor before attempting exercises for tennis elbow. A doctor can make sure that the exercises will not affect any underlying conditions or injuries.

If exercising the forearms seems to worsen symptoms of tennis elbow, a person can try:

  • resting the arm for longer
  • using an ice pack on the arm to help reduce inflammation
  • taking OTC medication, such as ibuprofen, for the relief of pain and inflammation
  • speaking to a doctor or physical therapist to make sure they are doing the exercises properly

When to see a doctor

Most people can treat the pain and inflammation caused by tennis elbow with rest and OTC medication. If the pain is severe or does not go away within 2 weeks, a person should see a doctor.

A doctor may prescribe a different NSAID or a steroid injection. Most people only need one injection, though they may need to rest their elbow for around 2–3 weeks afterward. Pain can worsen after a steroid injection, but this should improve within 48 hours.

Some people may find that tennis elbow is affecting their day-to-day activities. In these cases, a doctor may recommend physical or occupational therapy. A specialist can provide treatments and exercises to help improve motion and reduce pain.

A doctor or therapist may also recommend a supportive brace or clasp. This can help reduce strain on the elbow if repetitive movements are necessary for a person’s work.

Medical News Today: Herpesvirus may lead to bipolar, depression

Scientists have discovered the human herpesvirus HHV-6 in the neurons of people who lived with bipolar or severe depression.
herpes virus illustration
The human herpesvirus (depicted here) may be responsible for a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 4.4 percent of the population of the United States will have bipolar disorder at one point in their lives.

Another 16.2 million, or around 6.7 percent of all U.S. adults, will experience at least one episode of severe depression in their lives.

While the precise causes of such, often debilitating, psychiatric conditions remain unknown, scientists do know that both genes and the environment play a role.

For instance, a recent study identified 44 genetic loci thought to raise the risk of depression, while another has suggested that 80 percent of schizophrenia risk can be attributed to genes.

New research that now appears in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology highlights the fact that environmental factors such as viruses may be the driving force behind these disorders.

An international team of scientists led by Bhupesh Prusty — from the Department of Microbiology at the University of Würzburg in Germany — discovered that in the brains of people who lived with bipolar and major depression, a class of neurons called Purkinje cells was infected with the herpesvirus HHV-6A.

Purkinje neurons are inhibitory brain cells located in the human cerebellum, which is the brain area responsible for controlling movement, muscles, balance, and posture.

However, some research has also tied this brain region to language, cognition, and mood.

How HHV-6 may cause depression, bipolar

Prusty and team started from the hypothesis that the human herpesviruses HHV-6A and HHV-6B may drive the development of psychiatric disorders.

So, they examined two large cohorts of brain biopsies from the Stanley Medical Research Institute in Kensington, MD.

“We were able to find active infection of HHV-6 predominantly within Purkinje cells of human cerebellum in bipolar and major depressive disorder patients,” Prusty reports.

“Inherited factors,” he continues, “have long been known to increase the risk of developing several types of psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.”

However, continues Prusty, environmental factors such as viruses can also contribute by triggering neuroinflammation in early life. “Pathogens may disrupt neurodevelopment and cross-talk with the immune system at key developmental stages,” he suspects.

The findings of this study suggest that the herpesvirus HHV-6 could infect brain cells and cause cognitive and mood disorders.

Prusty also explains that the results of the study contradict the belief that latent viruses — that is, viruses thought to be inactive, laying dormant in organs and tissues — are completely harmless.

“Studies like ours prove this thinking as wrong,” says Prusty, who points to the mounting evidence that shows that human herpesviruses may cause other neurological conditions.

For instance, a study that Medical News Today recently reported on found “strong evidence” to suggest that the human herpesviruses HHV-6A and HHV-7 may cause Alzheimer’s disease.

A much higher number of these viruses were found in the brains of people who had lived with the disease. Another study that we covered offered “the first population evidence for a causal link between herpes virus infection and Alzheimer’s disease.”

Next, Prusty and his colleagues plan to study the molecular mechanisms that could explain exactly how HHV-6A damages Purkinje cells, and how this could lead to psychiatric disorders.

Medical News Today: Experimental drug may treat ‘undruggable’ cancers

Many cancers are hard to treat because they share a faulty cell-signaling pathway that is very difficult to target. Could one new experimental drug on the brink of human trials be the much-needed breakthrough?
scientist doing research
A new experimental drug could be a significant breakthrough in cancer treatment.

The cell-signaling pathway is called RAS/MAPK and it influences many cell functions including growth, division, and death. Around half of all cancer cases — in a range of different tissues — have defects in this pathway.

Now, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and Revolution Medicines in Redwood City, CA, have identified a new approach for targeting the RAS/MAPK pathway, which is also called the MAPK/ERK pathway.

In a study paper that is now published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, they describe how an experimental drug effectively “decoupled” the pathway from growth signals arriving at the cell.

The compound, which they call RMC-4550, significantly slows cancer progression in laboratory cell lines of pancreatic, lung, skin, and colon cancer, as well as in human lung tumors that had been grown in mice.

“RAS/MAPK,” says senior study author Dr. Trever G. Bivona, a clinical oncologist with UCSF Health, “is one of the most important cancer signaling pathways, but so far most attempts to develop targeted drugs against this pathway have ended in failure.”

In fact, the search for drugs that target the pathway has proved so challenging that some scientists have likened it to a quest for the “Holy Grail” of cancer treatment, he notes.

Cancer and cell signaling

Cancer arises when cells grow abnormally and form a mass known as a tumor. The tumor may stay where it started — that is, remain “in situ” — or it can become invasive and grow into neighboring organs and tissue.

Cells can also break away from the primary tumor, migrate through blood and lymph vessels, and establish secondary tumors in other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. Cells of metastatic tumors bear the hallmarks of the primary tumor.

As the tumors grow, they disrupt healthy tissue and organs and eventually threaten their ability to sustain life.

Alterations in genes and the factors that influence their behavior drive the complex process of cancer. Some alterations “map to signaling pathways” that influence the growth, division, mobility, and fate of cells.

RAS/MAPK is such a pathway, and it starts with an “upstream” signal that arrives from outside the cell. When the associated cell surface protein, or receptor, detects the signal, it will trigger an internal cell protein called RAS.

RAS then activates a series of molecular reactions that triggers other proteins, including RAF, MEK, and MAPK.

The pathway is a cascade of molecular events that control several “downstream” genetic processes that promote growth by switching genes on and off.

While this is going on, another group of proteins called tumor suppressors are keeping the pathway in check so that growth does not get out of control. NF1 is such a protein.

Targeting the RAS/MAPK pathway

Cancers involving the RAS/MAPK pathway arise when variants in one or more of the proteins that are involved destabilize the cascade of molecular events and cause cells to grow out of control.

These variants, or “oncogenic alterations,” note the authors, “drive the growth of a wide spectrum of cancers.”

There has not been much success in developing drugs that target either specific defects in the RAS/MAPK pathway itself or in its downstream results.

Some reasons for this include the fact that the defects are difficult to target with drugs, and that cancers rapidly become resistant to the drugs that do work and soon find an alternative route through the pathway.

For some time, it was thought that cancer-prone defects in RAS/MAPK concerned one or more of the proteins promoting too much growth.

However, Dr. Bivona explains that more recently, researchers have discovered that the cause may be that cancer-prone mutations make some of the proteins in the cascade become over-sensitive to growth signals. He likens it to “turning up the volume” on the whole pathway.

So, he and his colleagues wondered whether blocking the pathway at its source might be a better strategy for stopping cancer growth. This is what their study essentially proved.

Targeting SHP2 ‘uncouples’ the pathway

Working with Revolution Medicines — who part-funded the study and developed the experimental drug — the UCSF team showed that they could halt growth of several cancers by targeting an enzyme called SHP2.

SHP2 is a “scaffolding molecule” that plays a key role at the start of the RAS/MAK pathway. It allows the receptor protein to trigger RAS.

Blocking SHP2 effectively uncouples the pathway from external growth signals.

The researchers tested the effect of RMC-4550 on dozens of cancer cell lines with various mutated proteins thought to be sensitive to external growth signals. These include class 3 BRAF mutations, certain KRAS mutations, and mutations that deplete the tumor suppressor NF1.

They found that lung, colon, pancreatic, and melanoma skin cancer cells that carry these mutations responded to the compound. It slowed cancer growth in these cells, and, in some cases, it even killed the cells.

The drug halted or shrank tumors in mice

Finally, they tested the experimental drug in human lung cancer tumors that had been grown in mice. They used five different mouse models of non-small-cell lung cancers.

Each of the lung cancers had one of the mutations that the team had identified in the earlier cell-line experiments.

The results showed that the compound either halted tumor growth or caused tumors to shrink, with the animals experiencing “minimal side effects.”

There are plans to carry out human trials later this year to test the efficacy and safety of an SHP2-inhibitor called RMC-4630.

Now, for the first time, we think we have a general strategy that could work against a subset of RAS/MAPK-driven cancers.”

Dr. Trever G. Bivona

Medical News Today: Leukemia: Do genes influence how people respond to therapy?

Acute myeloid leukemia, or cancer that affects the bone marrow, progresses at a fast rate. Its causes are not yet well understood. A common treatment for this type of leukemia is chemotherapy, but some people respond to it better than others. A new study explains why that is.
image of vial and text spelling acute myeloid leukemia
How does a person’s genetic makeup influence their response to acute myeloid leukemia treatment?

According to a recent study — the findings of which now appear in the journal JCI Insight — the chemotherapy approach fo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has a response rate of 40–70 percent.

However, “over half of patients relapse within 3 years.”

What makes some individuals respond better to treatment, and who is less likely to experience a relapse following therapy?

First study author Dr. Irum Khan and his colleagues from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) report that about a third of people diagnosed with AML have a specific variant of a gene called NPM1, and it is these people who have a better response to treatment.

In their study, the researchers show how the NPM1 mutation benefits people with AML, and they discuss how their findings may lead to better, more efficient therapy for this condition.

A key genetic mutation

As the researchers explain, the association between the NPM1 gene mutation and the improved response rates was first spotted by UIC researcher Andrei Gartel and colleagues in previous studies.

NPM1 encodes the protein of the same name, which, in turn, regulates the activity, and influences the position, of another protein known as FOXM1. Usually, the NPM1 protein keeps FOXM1 in the cells’ nuclei.

In cancer cells, this allows FOXM1 to activate certain oncogenes, or genes that play a role in cancer growth when active. People with highly elevated levels of FOXM1 often see poorer outcomes following treatment.

However, in individuals with the specific mutation in the NPM1 gene, FOXM1 is “pushed” out of the cell nucleus — where it can influence gene activity — and into the citoplasm, thus ensuring that this protein is “isolated” and unable to interact with oncogenes.

This means that people with the NPM1 gene mutation respond better to chemotherapy, as well as experience better long-term outcomes.

Due to these results, the UIC researchers hypothesized that if they could target and block FOXM1 in people with AML who do not have the beneficial NPM1 gene variant, they might be able to improve those individuals’ responses to chemotherapy.

How one protein impacts prognosis

In the new study, Khan, Gartel, and colleagues decided to have a closer look at the mechanisms of the NPM1 and FOXM1 protein in cases of AML. First, they collected and analyzed samples of bone marrow cells from 77 people diagnosed with this condition.

The researchers’ analysis confirmed that the presence of FOXM1 in cell nuclei was associated with a poorer response to chemotherapy.

When we then looked in the patients’ medical records, we saw that those with FOXM1 present in the nucleus of their cancer cells had worse treatment outcomes, higher rates of chemotherapy resistance, and lower survival rates compared to patients without FOXM1 present in the nucleus.”

Dr. Irum Khan

They also tested these outcomes in a mouse model of leukemia, with rodents engineered to produce more FOXM1, which would stimulate the development of this disease.

When these mice were treated with cytarabine, a chemotherapy drug that is frequently used in AML therapy, the researchers noticed that these animals responded less well to the treatment, compared with a control group of rodents with leukemia but with normal FOXM1 levels.

“Our finding suggests that overexpression of FOXM1 directly induces chemoresistance [resistance to chemotherapy], which matches what we saw in our analysis of patients’ FOXM1 levels and their treatment outcomes,” says Khan.

The search for better therapy

Finally, the research team used in vitro experiments on AML cells to test the effectiveness of a new drug — ixazomib, which is currently used to treat multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer — in treating myeloid leukemia.

The researchers saw that ixazomib showed promise, particularly as it blocked FOXM1 activity within cells.

Also, when Khan and colleagues treated the AML cells both with ixazomib and chemotherapy drugs typically used to address myeloid leukemia — such as cytarabine and anthracyclines — the cancer cells died at a much higher rate, compared with when they applied only standard chemotherapy.

“Ixazomib,” explains Gartel, “produced a synergized chemotherapeutic response when added to standard chemotherapy,” adding, “We believe this is caused by ixazomib inhibiting the activity of FOXM1.”

In turn, Khan stresses that “[t]here is a real unmet need for new ways to get around the resistance to chemotherapy that patients who don’t have this beneficial mutation often face.”

This is why the researchers are aiming to test their new combination drug strategy further, in the hope that, in the future, they will be able apply it to individuals with AML and a poor response to regular treatments.

“Drugs that suppress FOXM1 in combination with the standard treatment, such as ixazomib, should result in better outcomes,” says Khan, “but clinical trials will ultimately be needed to prove this theory.”

Medical News Today: How to protect your brain from ‘fake news’

Psychologists say that coping strategies developed in childhood are the reason why people become vulnerable to fake news as adults.
FAKE NEWS concept
What makes fake news so appealing?

Given the latest developments in politics in the Western world, the phenomenon of “fake news” has garnered more and more interest.

A major study by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge analyzed the information on Twitter to see what gains more traction: truth or falsehood?

The researchers examined 126,000 contested news stories that 3 million users tweeted over the course of a decade, and they found that “fake news” reaches a lot more people and spreads a lot faster than accurate information.

Importantly, the predominance of fake news makes people distrust news outlets, and many report that they don’t know how to distinguish truth from falsehood.

An international survey published earlier this year found that 7 in 10 people fear that fake news is being used as “a weapon,” and over 60 percent of the respondents don’t feel confident that they can tell the difference between fake news and facts.

What makes people vulnerable to fake news in the first place? Are there any strategies we can develop to protect ourselves from falsehood?

New research presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association (APA), held San Francisco, CA, explains the mechanisms behind the appeal of fake news.

The findings have also been published in the journal Science.

The brain is hardwired for fake news

Mark Whitmore, Ph.D. — an assistant professor of management and information systems at Kent State University in Ohio — who presented at APA’s convention this year, points to the so-called confirmation bias as the main reason behind the appeal of fake news.

The confirmation bias refers to people’s tendency to accept information that confirms their pre-existing beliefs and to ignore information that challenges them.

“At its core is the need for the brain to receive confirming information that harmonizes with an individual’s existing views and beliefs,” explains Whitmore.

“In fact,” he explains, “one could say the brain is hardwired to accept, reject, misremember, or distort information based on whether it is viewed as accepting of or threatening to existing beliefs.”

Eve Whitmore, Ph.D. — a developmental psychologist at Western Reserve Psychological Associates in Stow, OH — explains that this bias is formed in early life, as a child learns to distinguish between fantasy and reality.

During this critical time, parents encourage children to make believe because pretend games help the young cope with reality and assimilate social norms. However, the downside is that children learn that fantasy is sometimes acceptable.

As children grow into adolescents, the researchers explain, they develop their own critical thinking skills and start to question their parents or other authority figures. However, this can often lead to conflicts and anxieties that are uncomfortable on a psychological level.

This is where biased rationalizations come in. To avoid conflict and anxiety, people develop coping mechanisms such as the confirmation bias; since challenging false beliefs might cause conflict, adolescents learn to rationalize and accept the falsehoods instead.

Humor can protect against fake news

One way to reduce the appeal of fake news is to reduce the anxiety that makes confirmation bias an easy way out.

“One positive defense strategy is humor,” says Mark Whitmore. “Watching late-night comedy or political satire, while not actually altering or changing the source of the stressor, can help reduce the stress and anxiety associated with it.”

“Another is sublimation, where you channel your negative feelings into something positive, such as running for office, marching in a protest, or volunteering for a social cause.”

Making a conscious effort to listen to other viewpoints can help moderate opinions and make them less extreme, he adds.

Finally, they stress the importance of an early development of critical thinking skills. “Developing a greater degree of skepticism in children, by encouraging them to ask why and to question, diminishes confirmation bias.”

Medical News Today: How much salt does it really take to harm your heart?

Too much salt is bad for you, particulary because it is associated with an increased risk of heart problems — but how much is too much? A new study suggests that we may not have to worry so much about how salty we like our food to be.
salt shaker
A new international study suggests that we may want to rethink how much salt is actually harmful.

Table salt, which we commonly use to season our food, contains sodium.

Sodium, if often ingested in large quantities, can lead to a range of cardiovascular problems, including hypertension.

The World Health Organization (WHO) say that a person should not consume more than 2 grams of sodium per day, which is about 5 grams of salt per day.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend no more than 2.5 grams of sodium per day, though they state that the ideal intake is of no more than 1.5 grams per day for an adult.

However, researchers from a range of international institutions — including McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, both in Hamilton, Canada, as well institutions from 21 other countries — suggest that these limits are unnecessarily low.

Researcher Andrew Mente and colleagues conducted a study of 94,000 people aged 35–70, aiming to establish how much sodium really is too much for heart health.

Current guidelines, the team notes, push for standards that are unrealistic for many, seeing as salt is often an almost invisible ingredient contained by numerous packaged foods.

“The [WHO recommend] consumption of less than 2 grams of sodium — that’s one teaspoon of salt — a day as a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease,” says Mente.

He also adds, however, that “there is little evidence in terms of improved health outcomes that individuals ever achieve at such a low level.”

The new study, whose results are now featured in The Lancet, now suggests that we can be more lenient about our salt consumption without fearing that it will harm our cardiovascular health.

Slightly higher sodium intake is safe

The study followed the participants — who were based in communities across 18 different countries — for an average period of 8 years.

Mente and his colleagues revealed that a high intake of sodium did lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke — but only in communities where the average intake for an adult was greater than 5 grams per day.

This amounts to about 2.5 teaspoons of table salt, the researchers explain.

Encouragingly, the researchers also noticed that under 5 percent of the participants coming from developed countries exceeded the 5-gram cutoff point for sodium intake.

In most of the countries, the majority of the communities that the researchers observed had an average sodium intake of 3–5 grams of sodium — or 1.5 to 2.5 teaspoons of salt — per day.

In fact, of all the populations in the study, only those from China showed a consistently high intake of sodium. Specifically, 80 percent of the communities from China had a sodium intake that was higher than 5 grams per day.

“Only in the communities with the most sodium intake — those over 5 grams [per] day of sodium — which is mainly in China, did we find a direct link between sodium intake and major cardiovascular events like heart attack and stroke,” Mente explains.

On the other hand, he adds, “In communities that consumed less than 5 grams of sodium a day, the opposite was the case. Sodium consumption was inversely associated with myocardial infarction or heart attacks and total mortality, and [there was] no increase in stroke.”

Community interventions can help

Even in the case of individuals who do consume too much table salt, however, the situation is not unsalvageable, the researchers say.

Mente notes that people can easily redress the balance and protect their heart health by making a few simple adjustments to their diets, such as adding more fruits, vegetables, and foods naturally rich in potassium.

“We found all major cardiovascular problems, including death, decreased in communities and countries where there is an increased consumption of potassium which is found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, potatoes, and nuts and beans,” says the study author.

Another one of the researches involved with the current study, Martin O’Donnell, notes that most of the studies looking at the relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular risk so far have focused on individual data, rather than information collected from larger cohorts.

This, he suggests, may have skewed the best practice guidelines into a direction that is both unrealistic and perhaps too cautious.

Public health strategies should be based on best evidence. Our findings demonstrate that community-level interventions to reduce sodium intake should target communities with high sodium consumption, and should be embedded within approaches to improve overall dietary quality.”

Martin O’Donnell

“There is no convincing evidence that people with moderate or average sodium intake need to reduce their sodium intake for prevention of heart disease and stroke,” O’Donnell adds.